Bylaws in red have been voted into the OntarioACHI constitution by the board and remain as temporary additions or changes to the Bylaws until formal ratification or rejecting by the members at the next Annual General Meeting
1. The By-Laws
In this by-law and all other by-laws of the Corporation, unless the context otherwise requires:
“Act” means the Canada Not-For-Profit Corporations Act S.C. 2010, c.23 including the Regulations made pursuant to the Act, and any statute or regulations that may be substituted, as amended from time to time;
“articles” means the original or restated articles of incorporation or articles of amendment, amalgamation, continuance, reorganization, arrangement or revival of the Corporation;
“board” means the board of directors of the Corporation;
“director” means an executive member of the board;
“by-law” means this by-law and any other by-law of the Corporation as amended and which are, from time to time, in force and effect;
“meeting of members” includes an annual meeting of members or a special meeting of members; “special meeting of members” includes a meeting of any class or classes of members and a special meeting of all members entitled to vote at an annual meeting of members;
“officer” means an officer of the Association who may or may not be an executive director or member of the association but whose appointment is made and revoked by the board.
“ordinary resolution” means a resolution passed by a majority of not less than 50% plus 1 of the votes case on that resolution;
“proposal” means a proposal submitted by a member of the Corporation that meets the requirements of section 163 (Shareholder Proposals) of the Act;
“Regulations” means the regulations made under the Act, as amended, restated or in effect from time to time; and
“special resolution” means a resolution passed by a majority of not less than two-thirds (2/3) of the votes cast on that resolution.
In the interpretation of this by-law, words in the singular include the plural and vice-versa, words in one gender include all genders, and “person” includes an individual, body corporate, partnership, trust and unincorporated organization.
Other than as specified above, words and expressions defined in the Act have the same meanings when used in these by-laws.
2.1 Corporate Seal
The Corporation may have a corporate seal in the form approved from time to time by the board. If a corporate seal is approved by the board, the secretary of the Corporation shall be the custodian of the corporate seal.
2.2 Number of Directors
The board shall consist of the number of directors specified in the articles. If the articles provide for a minimum and maximum number of directors, the board shall be comprised of the fixed number of directors as determined from time to time by the members by ordinary resolution or, if the ordinary resolution empowers the directors to determine the number, by resolution of the board. In the case of a soliciting corporation the minimum number of directors may not be fewer than three (3), at least two of whom are not officers or employees of the Corporation or its affiliates.
2.3 Term of Office of Directors
The directors shall be elected to hold office for a term expiring not later than the close of the second annual meeting of members following the election. Directors must stand for re-election, supported by membership proposal, and be elected by the members at the end of each term to extend their serving period beyond two years.
2.4 Committees of the Board of Directors
The board may from time to time appoint any committee or other advisory body, as it deems necessary or appropriate for such purposes and, subject to the Act, with such powers as the board shall see fit. Any such committee may formulate its own rules of procedure, subject to such regulations or directions as the board may from time to time make. Any committee member may be removed by resolution of the board of directors.
2.4.1 Director Discipline (enacted May 9th, 2013, ratified at AGM by members)
Any Director proven to have made any statement of an unprofessional nature or proven to have made a personal opinion that could be considered an official position of, or an opinion made on behalf of, the association without first getting full board approval to have that opinion representative of the Association is required to resign their position as Director immediately.
2.5 Appointment of Officers
The board may designate the offices of the Corporation, appoint and remove officers on an annual or more frequent basis, specify their duties and, subject to the Act, delegate to such officers the power to manage the affairs of the Corporation. A director may be appointed to any office of the Corporation. An officer may, but need not be, a director unless these by-laws otherwise provide. Two or more offices may be held by the same person.
2.6 Description of Offices
Unless otherwise specified by the board (which may, subject to the Act modify, restrict or supplement such duties and powers), the offices of the Corporation, if designated and if officers are appointed, shall have the following duties and powers associated with their positions:
- President/Chair of the Board – The chair of the board, shall be the chief executive officer and director of the Corporation and shall be responsible for implementing the strategic plans and policies of the Corporation. The president shall, subject to the authority of the board, have general supervision of the affairs of the Corporation. The chair of the board, if any, shall, when present, preside at all meetings of the board of directors and of the members. The chair shall have such other duties and powers as the board may specify.
- Vice-Chair of the Board – The office of vice-chair of the board, if one is to be appointed, shall be a director. If the chair of the board is absent or is unable or refuses to act, the vice-chair of the board, if any, shall, when present, preside at all meetings of the board of directors and of the members. The vice-chair shall have such other duties and powers as the board may specify.
- Treasurer – If appointed, the office of treasurer shall be a director and shall have such powers and duties as the board may specify.
- Secretary – If appointed, the secretary shall be an officer
and shall attend and be the secretary of all meetings of the board, members and committees of the board. The secretary shall enter or cause to be entered in the Corporation’s minute book, minutes of all proceedings at such meetings; the secretary shall give, or cause to be given, as and when instructed, notices to members, directors, the public accountant and members of committees; the secretary shall be the custodian of all books, papers, records, documents and other instruments belonging to the Corporation.
- Registrar – If appointed, the Registrar shall be an officer and shall have such powers and duties as the board may specify.
The powers and duties of all other officers of the Corporation shall be such as the terms of their engagement call for or the board or president requires of them. The board may from time to time and subject to the Act, vary, add to or limit the powers and duties of any officer.
2.7 Vacancy in Office
In the absence of a written agreement to the contrary, the board may remove, whether for cause or without cause, any officer of the Corporation. Unless so removed, an officer shall hold office until the earlier of:
- the officer’s successor being appointed,
- the officer’s resignation,
- such officer ceasing to be a director (if a necessary qualification of appointment) or
- such officer’s death.
If the office of any officer of the Corporation shall be or become vacant, the directors may, by resolution, appoint a person to fill such vacancy.
2.8 Method of Giving Any Notice
Any notice (which term includes any communication or document), other than notice of a meeting of members or a meeting of the board of directors, to be given (which term includes sent, delivered or served) pursuant to the Act, the articles, the by-laws or otherwise to a member, director, officer or member of a committee of the board or to the public accountant shall be sufficiently given:
- if delivered personally to the person to whom it is to be given or if delivered to such person’s address as shown in the records of the Corporation or in the case of notice to a director to the latest address as shown in the last notice that was sent by the Corporation in accordance with section 128 (Notice of directors) or 134 (Notice of change of directors);
- if mailed to such person at such person’s recorded address by prepaid ordinary or air mail;
- if sent to such person by telephonic, electronic or other communication facility at such person’s recorded address for that purpose; or
- if provided in the form of an electronic document in accordance with Part 17 of the Act.
A notice so delivered shall be deemed to have been given when it is delivered personally or to the recorded address as aforesaid; a notice so mailed shall be deemed to have been given when deposited in a post office or public letter box; and a notice so sent by any means of transmitted or recorded communication shall be deemed to have been given when dispatched or delivered to the appropriate communication company or agency or its representative for dispatch. The secretary may change or cause to be changed the recorded address of any member, director, officer, public accountant or member of a committee of the board in accordance with any information believed by the secretary to be reliable. The declaration by the secretary that notice has been given pursuant to this by-law shall be sufficient and conclusive evidence of the giving of such notice. The signature of any director or officer of the Corporation to any notice or other document to be given by the Corporation may be written, stamped, type-written or printed or partly written, stamped, type-written or printed.
2.9 Execution of documents
Deeds, transfers, assignments, contracts, obligations and other instruments in writing requiring execution by the Corporation may be signed by any three (3) of its officers or directors. In addition, the board may from time to time direct the manner in which and the person or persons by whom a particular document or type of document shall be executed. Any person authorized to sign any document may affix the corporate seal (if any) to the document. Any signing officer may certify a copy of any instrument, resolution, by-law or other document of the Corporation to be a true copy thereof.
2.10 Financial Year End
The financial year end of the Corporation shall be determined by the board of directors.
2.11 Banking Arrangements
The banking business of the Corporation shall be transacted at such bank, trust company or other firm or corporation carrying on a banking business in Canada or elsewhere as the board of directors may designate, appoint or authorize from time to time by resolution. The banking business or any part of it shall be transacted by an officer or officers of the Corporation and/or other persons as the board of directors may by resolution from time to time designate, direct or authorize.
2.12 Borrowing Powers
If authorized by a by-law which is duly adopted by the directors and confirmed by ordinary resolution of the members, the directors of the corporation may from time to time:
- borrow money on the credit of the corporation;
- issue, reissue, sell, pledge or hypothecate debt obligations of the corporation; and
- mortgage, hypothecate, pledge or otherwise create a security interest in all or any property of the corporation, owned or subsequently acquired, to secure any debt obligation of the corporation.
Any such by-law may provide for the delegation of such powers by the directors to such officers or directors of the corporation to such extent and in such manner as may be set out in the by-law.
Nothing herein limits or restricts the borrowing of money by the corporation on bills of exchange or promissory notes made, drawn, accepted or endorsed by or on behalf of the corporation.
2.13 Annual Financial Statements
The Corporation shall publish on the internet a copy of the annual financial statements and other documents referred to in subsection 172(1) (Annual Financial Statements) of the Act or a copy of a publication of the Corporation reproducing the information contained in the documents. The Corporation is not required to send individual documents or a summary in hard copy form to any member as these documents will be available, for download, to all members through an internet connection.
3.1 Membership Conditions
Subject to the articles, there shall be five classes of members in the Corporation, namely:
- Full members
- Affiliate members
- Associate Members
- Student Members
- Registered Members (Registrants)
The board of directors of the Corporation may, by resolution, approve the admission of the members of the Corporation. Members may also be admitted in such other manner as may be prescribed by the board by resolution.
Pursuant to subsection 197(1) (Fundamental Change) of the Act, a special resolution of the members is required to make any amendments to this section of the by-laws if those amendments affect membership rights and/or conditions described in paragraphs 197(1)(e), (h), (l) or (m).
The following conditions of membership shall apply:
3.1.1 Full Members
Full Membership shall be available to inspectors who practice home inspections in the Province of Ontario and who have applied and have been accepted for Full Membership in the Corporation. Inspectors who apply and are accepted to join but do not practice in the Province of Ontario will have Associate Membership status.
The term of membership of a Full member shall be annual, subject to renewal in accordance with the policies of the Corporation.
As set out in the articles, each Full member is entitled to given notice of, attend and vote at all meetings of members and each such Full member shall be entitled to one (1) vote at such meetings.
3.1.2 Affiliate Members
Affiliate membership shall be available to persons who have applied and have been accepted for Affiliate membership in the Corporation.
The term of membership of an Affiliate Member shall be annual, subject to renewal in accordance with the policies of the Corporation.
Subject to the Act and the articles, an Affiliate Member shall not be entitled to receive notice of, attend or vote at any meetings of the members of the Corporation.
The policies of the corporation referred to in this By-law is the Operational Standards Membership Classification document
3.1.3 Associate Members
Associate membership shall be available to persons who have applied and have been accepted for Associate membership in the Corporation.
The term of membership of an Associate Member shall be annual, subject to renewal in accordance with the policies of the Corporation.
Subject to the Act and the articles, an Associate Member shall not be entitled to receive notice of, or vote at General meetings of the members of the Corporation, but shall be able to attend. They shall be entitled to given notice of, attend and vote at all other meetings of members and each such Associate member shall be entitled to one (1) vote at such meetings.
3.1.4 Student Members
Student membership shall be available to persons who are full or part-time students and are NOT practicing as home inspectors and have applied and have been accepted for Student membership in the Corporation.
Subject to the Act and the articles, a Student Member shall not be entitled to receive notice of, or vote at General meetings of the members of the Corporation, but shall be able to attend. They shall be entitled to given notice of, attend and vote at other meetings of members, at the Board or Standing Committee’s discretion, and each such Student member shall be entitled to one (1) vote at such meetings where allowed
The term of membership of a Student Member shall be annual, subject to renewal in accordance with the policies of the Corporation.
3.1.5 Registered Members
Registered membership shall be available to persons who have applied and have been accepted for Registered membership in the Corporation. They shall be known as Registrants.
The term of membership of a Registered Member shall be ‘for life’, or until such time as the Registered member adopts another type of membership or chooses to leave the register of members by unsubscribing.
Subject to the Act and the articles, a Registered Member shall NOT be entitled to receive notice of, attend or vote at General meetings of the members of the Corporation. They shall be entitled to given notice of, attend all other meetings of members but without the right to participate in motions leading to a vote or vote.
3.2 Membership Transferability
Membership may only be transferred to the Corporation. Pursuant to Section 197(1) (Fundamental Change) of the Act, a special resolution of the members is required to make any amendment to add, change or delete this section of the by-laws.
3.3 Membership Dues
Members shall be notified in writing of the membership dues at any time payable by them and, if any are not paid within three (3) calendar months of the membership renewal date the members in default shall automatically cease to be members of the Corporation.
3.4 Termination of Membership
A membership in the Corporation is terminated when:
- the member dies, or, in the case of a member that is a corporation, the corporation is dissolved;
- a member fails to maintain any qualifications for membership described in the section on membership conditions of these by-laws;
- the member resigns by delivering a written resignation to the chair of the board of the Corporation in which case such resignation shall be effective on the date specified in the resignation;
- the member is expelled in accordance with any discipline of members section or is otherwise terminated in accordance with the articles or by-laws;
- the member’s term of membership expires; or
- the Corporation is liquidated or dissolved under the Act.
3.5 Effect of Termination of Membership
Subject to the articles, upon any termination of membership, the rights of the member, including any rights in the property, registered marks or certifications of the Corporation, automatically cease to exist.
4. Discipline and Dispute Resolution
4.1 Discipline of Members
The board shall have authority to suspend or expel any member from the Corporation for any one or more of the following grounds:
- violating any provision of the articles, by-laws, or written policies of the Corporation;
- carrying out any conduct which may be detrimental to the Corporation as determined by the board in its sole discretion;
- for any other reason that the board in its sole and absolute discretion considers to be reasonable, having regard to the purpose of the Corporation.
In the event that the board determines that a member should be expelled or suspended from membership in the Corporation, the president, or such other officer as may be designated by the board, shall provide twenty (20) days notice of suspension or expulsion to the member and shall provide reasons for the proposed suspension or expulsion. The member may make written submissions to the president, or such other officer as may be designated by the board, in response to the notice received within such twenty (20) day period. In the event that no written submissions are received by the president, the president, or such other officer as may be designated by the board, may proceed to notify the member that the member is suspended or expelled from membership in the Corporation. If written submissions are received in accordance with this section, the board will consider such submissions in arriving at a final decision and shall notify the member concerning such final decision within a further twenty (20) days from the date of receipt of the submissions. The board’s decision shall be final and binding on the member, without any further right of appeal.
4.2 Mediation and Arbitration
Disputes or controversies among members, directors, officers, committee members, or volunteers of the Corporation are as much as possible to be resolved in accordance with mediation and/or arbitration as provided in the section on dispute resolution mechanism of this by-law.
4.3 Dispute Resolution Mechanism
In the event that a dispute or controversy among members, directors, officers, committee members or volunteers of the Corporation arising out of or related to the articles or by-laws, or out of any aspect of the operations of the Corporation is not resolved in private meetings between the parties then without prejudice to or in any other way derogating from the rights of the members, directors, officers, committee members, employees or volunteers of the Corporation as set out in the articles, by-laws or the Act, and as an alternative to such person instituting a law suit or legal action, such dispute or controversy shall be settled by a process of dispute resolution as follows:
- The dispute or controversy shall first be submitted to a panel of mediators whereby the one party appoints one mediator, the other party (or if applicable the board of the Corporation) appoints one mediator, and the two mediators so appointed jointly appoint a third mediator. The three mediators will then meet with the parties in question in an attempt to mediate a resolution between the parties.
- The number of mediators may be reduced from three to one or two upon agreement of the parties.
- If the parties are not successful in resolving the dispute through mediation, then the parties agree that the dispute shall be settled by arbitration before a single arbitrator, who shall not be any one of the mediators referred to above, in accordance with the provincial or territorial legislation governing domestic arbitration in force in the province or territory where the registered office of the Corporation is situated or as otherwise agreed upon by the parties to the dispute. The parties agree that all proceedings relating to arbitration shall be kept confidential and there shall be no disclosure of any kind. The decision of the arbitrator shall be final and binding and shall not be subject to appeal on a question of fact, law or mixed fact and law.
All costs of the mediators appointed in accordance with this section shall be borne equally by the parties to the dispute or the controversy. All costs of the arbitrators appointed in accordance with this section shall be borne by such parties as may be determined by the arbitrators.
5 Members Meetings
5.1 Types of Meetings
Three (3) types of meetings of members are recognized in these By-Laws:
- General Meetings
- Committee Meetings
- Local Meetings
5.1.1 General Meetings are meetings that require members with voting rights to such meetings of the Corporation provide their input and vote on decisions that affect the organisation or operation of the Corporation as a whole or in part dependent on the meeting. Examples of such meetings would be Annual General Meetings, Special General Meetings, Extraordinary General Meetings and Standing Committee General Meetings. These are formal meetings of the Corporation and as such Minutes shall be recorded and published to the Membership.
5.1.2 Committee Meetings are formal meetings of groups of members appointed by the provisions in these by-laws to produce findings requested by the Committee mandate at the time. Minutes shall be recorded and published to the Board of Directors.
5.1.3 Local Meetings are meetings of individual member groups that are called by mutual acceptance of the Members at these meetings. These are informal meetings of the Membership, and shall have no effect on the organisation or operation of the Corporation. Examples of this sort of meeting are networking meetings, presentation meetings, general discussion meetings, public awareness meetings and special interest meetings. These meetings are held in the name of the Corporation and therefore are bound by the Code of Ethics and Standard of Proactive of the Corporation and these by-laws. No minutes are required at these meetings except where the meeting produces a resolution that is to be presented to the Board of Directors. A resolution from such meeting must be accompanied by full minutes of the meeting.
5.2 Notice of Members Meeting
Subject to the Ontario not-for-profit corporations act, 2010, not less than 10 and not more that 50 days written notice of any annual or special Members’ meeting shall be given in the manner specified in the Act to each Member and to the auditor or person appointed to conduct a review engagement. Notice of any meeting where special business will be transacted must contain sufficient information to permit the Members to form a reasoned judgment on the decision to be taken. Notice of each meeting must remind the Member of the right to vote by proxy.
Pursuant to subsection 197(1) (Fundamental Change) of the Act, a special resolution of the members is required to make any amendment to the by-laws of the Corporation to change the manner of giving notice to members entitled to vote at a meeting of members.
5.3 Members Calling a Members’ Meeting
The board of directors shall call a special meeting of members in accordance with Section 167 of the Act, on written requisition of members carrying not less than 5% of the voting rights. If the directors do not call a meeting within twenty-one (21) days of receiving the requisition, any member who signed the requisition may call the meeting.
5.4 Absentee Voting at Members’ Meetings
5.4.1 Mail-in or electronic ballot
Pursuant to section 171(1) (Absentee Voting) of the Act, a member entitled to vote at a meeting of members may vote by mailed-in ballot or by means of a telephonic, electronic or other communication facility if the Corporation has a system that:
- enables the votes to be gathered in a manner that permits their subsequent verification, and
- permits the tallied votes to be presented to the Corporation without it being possible for the Corporation to identify how each member voted.
Pursuant to subsection 197(1) (Fundamental Change) of the Act, a special resolution of the members is required to make any amendment to the by-laws of the Corporation to change this method of voting by members not in attendance at a meeting of members.
5.4.2 Proxy vote
Pursuant to Section 171(1) of the Act, a member entitled to vote at a meeting of members may vote by proxy by appointing in writing a proxy holder, and one or more alternate proxy holders, who are not required to be members, to attend and act at the meeting in the manner and to the extent authorized by the proxy and with the authority conferred by it subject to the following requirements:
a proxy is valid only at the meeting in respect of which it is given or at a continuation of that meeting after an adjournment;
a member may revoke a proxy by depositing an instrument or act in writing executed or, in Quebec, signed by the member or by their agent or mandatory representative:
- at the registered office of the corporation no later than the last business day preceding the day of the meeting, or the day of the continuation of that meeting after an adjournment of that meeting, at which the proxy is to be used, or
- with the chairperson of the meeting on the day of the meeting or the day of the continuation of that meeting after an adjournment of that meeting;
- a proxy holder or an alternate proxy holder has the same rights as the member by whom they were appointed, including the right to speak at a meeting of members in respect of any matter, to vote by way of ballot at the meeting, to demand a ballot at the meeting and, except where a proxy holder or an alternate proxy holder has conflicting instructions from more than one member, to vote at the meeting by way of a show of hands;
if a form of proxy is created by a person other than the member, the form of proxy shall:
- indicate, in bold-face type:
- the meeting at which it is to be used
- that the member may appoint a proxy holder, other than a person designated in the form of proxy to attend and act on their behalf at the meeting and
- instructions on the manner in which the member may appoint the proxy holder
- contain a designated blank space for the date of the signature,
- provide a means for the member to designate some other person as proxy holder, if the form of proxy designates a person as proxy holder,
- provide a means for the member to specify that the membership registered in their name is to be voted for or against each matter, or group of related matters, identified in the notice of meeting, other than the appointment of a public accountant and the election of directors,
- provide a means for the member to specify that the membership registered in their name is to be voted or withheld from voting in respect of the appointment of a public accountant or the election of directors, and
- state that the membership represented by the proxy is to be voted or withheld from voting, in accordance with the instructions of the member, on any ballot that may be called for and that, if the member specifies a choice under subparagraph (iv) or (v) with respect to any matter to be acted on, the membership is to be voted accordingly;
a form of proxy may include a statement that, when the proxy is signed, the member confers authority with respect to matters for which a choice is not provided in accordance with subparagraph (d)(iv) only if the form of proxy states, in bold-face type, how the proxy holder is to vote the membership in respect of each matter or group of related matters;
if a form of proxy is sent in electronic form, the requirements that certain information be set out in bold-face type are satisfied if the information in question is set out in some other manner so as to draw the addressee’s attention to the information; and
a form of proxy that, if signed, has the effect of conferring a discretionary authority in respect of amendments to matters identified in the notice of meeting or other matters that may properly come before the meeting must contain a specific statement to that effect.
Pursuant to Section 197(1) of the Act, a special resolution of the members (and if Section 199 applies, a special resolution of each class of members) is required to make any amendment to the articles or by-laws of the Corporation to change this method of voting by members not in attendance at a meeting of members.
5.5 Proposals Nominating Directors at Annual Members’ Meetings
Subject to the Regulations under the Act, any proposal may include nominations for the election of directors if the proposal is signed by not less than 5% of members entitled to vote at the meeting at which the proposal is to be presented.
5.6 Cost of Publishing Proposals for Annual Members’ Meetings
Any member or group of members who submit a proposal shall be jointly and severally responsible to pay the cost of including the proposal and any statement in the notice of meeting at which the proposal is to be presented unless otherwise provided by ordinary resolution of the members present at the meeting.
5.7 Place of Members’ Meeting
Subject to compliance with section 159 (Place of Members’ Meetings) of the Act, meetings of the members may be held at any place within Canada determined by the board or, if all of the members entitled to vote at such meeting so agree, outside Canada.
5.8 Persons Entitled to be Present at Members’ Meetings
The only persons entitled to be present at a meeting of members shall be those entitled to vote at the meeting, the directors and the public accountant of the Corporation and such other persons who are entitled or required under any provision of the Act, articles or by-laws of the Corporation to be present at the meeting. Any other person may be admitted only on the invitation of the chair of the meeting or by resolution of the members.
5.9 Chair of Members’ Meetings
In the event that the chair of the board and the vice-chair of the board are absent, the members who are present and entitled to vote at the meeting shall choose one of their number to chair the meeting.
5.10 Quorum at Members’ Meetings
A quorum for the transaction of business at a Members’ meeting is a majority of the Members entitled to vote at the meeting, whether present in person or by proxy. If a quorum is present at the opening of a meeting of the Members, the Members present may proceed with the business of the meeting, even if a quorum is not present throughout the meeting.
5.11 Votes to Govern at Members’ Meetings
At any meeting of members every question shall, unless otherwise provided by the articles or by-laws or by the Act, be determined by a majority of the votes cast on the questions. In case of an equality of votes either on a show of hands or on a ballot or on the results of electronic voting, the chair of the meeting in addition to an original vote shall have a second or casting vote.
5.12 Participation by Electronic Means at Members’ Meetings
If the Corporation chooses to make available a telephonic, electronic or other communication facility that permits all participants to communicate adequately with each other during a meeting of members, any person entitled to attend such meeting may participate in the meeting by means of such telephonic, electronic or other communication facility in the manner provided by the Act. A person participating in a meeting by such means is deemed to be present at the meeting. Notwithstanding any other provision of this by-law, any person participating in a meeting of members pursuant to this section who is entitled to vote at that meeting may vote, in accordance with the Act, by means of any telephonic, electronic or other communication facility that the Corporation has made available for that purpose.
5.13 Members’ Meeting Held Entirely by Electronic Means
If the directors or members of the Corporation call a meeting of members pursuant to the Act, those directors or members, as the case may be, may determine that the meeting shall be held, in accordance with the Act and the Regulations, entirely by means of a telephonic, electronic or other communication facility that permits all participants to communicate adequately with each other during the meeting.
6 Board Meetings
6.1 Calling of Meetings of Board of Directors
Meetings of the board may be called by the chair of the board, the vice-chair of the board or any two (2) directors at any time. If the Corporation has only one director, that director may call and constitute a meeting.
6.2 Notice of Meeting of Board of Directors
Notice of the time and place for the holding of a meeting of the board shall be given in the manner provided in the section on giving notice of meeting of directors of this by-law to every director of the Corporation not less than seven (7) days before the time when the meeting is to be held. Notice of a meeting shall not be necessary if all of the directors are present, and none objects to the holding of the meeting, or if those absent have waived notice of or have otherwise signified their consent to the holding of such meeting. Notice of an adjourned meeting is not required if the time and place of the adjourned meeting is announced at the original meeting. Unless the by-law otherwise provides, no notice of meeting need specify the purpose or the business to be transacted at the meeting except that a notice of meeting of directors shall specify any matter referred to in subsection 138(2) (Limits on Authority) of the Act that is to be dealt with at the meeting.
6.3 Regular Meetings of the Board of Directors
The board may appoint a day or days in any month or months for regular meetings of the board at a place and hour to be named. A copy of any resolution of the board fixing the place and time of such regular meetings of the board shall be sent to each director forthwith after being passed, but no other notice shall be required for any such regular meeting except if subsection 136(3) (Notice of Meeting) of the Act requires the purpose thereof or the business to be transacted to be specified in the notice.
6.4 Votes to Govern at Meetings of the Board of Directors
At all meetings of the board, every question shall be decided by a majority of the votes cast on the question. In case of an equality of votes, the chair of the meeting in addition to an original vote shall have a second or casting vote.
7 Legal and Force Majeure
7.1 Omissions and Errors
The accidental omission to give any notice to any member, director, officer, member of a committee of the board or public accountant, or the non-receipt of any notice by any such person where the Corporation has provided notice in accordance with the by-laws or any error in any notice not affecting its substance shall not invalidate any action taken at any meeting to which the notice pertained or otherwise founded on such notice.
7.2 By-laws and Effective Date
Subject to the articles, the board of directors may, by resolution, make, amend or repeal any by-laws that regulate the activities or affairs of the Corporation. Any such by-law, amendment or repeal shall be effective from the date of the resolution of directors until the next meeting of members where it may be confirmed, rejected or amended by the members by ordinary resolution. If the by-law, amendment or repeal is confirmed or confirmed as amended by the members it remains effective in the form in which it was confirmed. The by-law, amendment or repeal ceases to have effect if it is not submitted to the members at the next meeting of members or if it is rejected by the members at the meeting.
This section does not apply to a by-law that requires a special resolution of the members according to subsection 197(1) (fundamental change) of the Act because such by-law amendments or repeals are only effective when confirmed by members.
7.3 Invalidity of any Provisions of this By-law
The invalidity or unenforceability of any provision of this by-law shall not affect the validity or enforceability of the remaining provisions of this by-law.